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    Cai Y, Hodgson S, Blangiardo M, Gulliver J, Morley D, Fecht D, Vienneau D, de Hoogh K, Key T, Hveem K, Elliott P, Hansell ALet al., 2018,

    Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: A joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 114, Pages: 191-201, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Gulliver J, Elliott P, Henderson J, Hansell AL, Vienneau D, Cai Y, McCrea A, Garwood K, Boyd A, Neal L, Agnew P, Fecht D, Briggs D, de Hoogh Ket al., 2018,

    Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 113, Pages: 10-19, ISSN: 0160-4120
    O'Driscoll R, Stettler MEJ, Molden N, Oxley T, ApSimon HMet al., 2018,

    Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars

    , SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 621, Pages: 282-290, ISSN: 0048-9697
    Pimpin L, Retat L, Fecht D, de Preux Gallone LB, Sassi F, Gulliver J, Belloni A, Ferguson B, Corbould E, Jaccard A, Webber Let al., 2018,

    Estimation of costs to the NHS and social care due to the health impacts of air pollution

    Popoola OAM, Carruthers D, Lad C, Bright VB, Mead MI, Stettler MEJ, Saffell JR, Jones RLet al., 2018,

    Use of networks of low cost air quality sensors to quantify air quality in urban settings

    , Atmospheric Environment, Vol: 194, Pages: 58-70, ISSN: 1352-2310

    © 2018 The Authors Low cost sensors are becoming increasingly available for studying urban air quality. Here we show how such sensors, deployed as a network, provide unprecedented insights into the patterns of pollutant emissions, in this case at London Heathrow Airport (LHR). Measurements from the sensor network were used to unequivocally distinguish airport emissions from long range transport, and then to infer emission indices from the various airport activities. These were used to constrain an air quality model (ADMS-Airport), creating a powerful predictive tool for modelling pollutant concentrations. For nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the results show that the non-airport component is the dominant fraction (∼75%) of annual NO2around the airport and that despite a predicted increase in airport related NO2with an additional runway, improvements in road traffic fleet emissions are likely to more than offset this increase. This work focusses on London Heathrow Airport, but the sensor network approach we demonstrate has general applicability for a wide range of environmental monitoring studies and air pollution interventions.

    Tonne C, Mila C, Fecht D, Alvarez M, Gulliver J, Smith J, Beevers S, Anderson HR, Kelly Fet al., 2018,

    Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in exposure to air and noise pollution in London

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 115, Pages: 170-179, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Williams ML, Lott MC, Kitwiroon N, Dajnak D, Walton H, Holland M, Pye S, Fecht D, Toledano MB, Beevers SDet al., 2018,

    The Lancet Countdown on health benefits from the UK Climate Change Act: a modelling study for Great Britain.

    , Lancet Planet Health, Vol: 2, Pages: e202-e213

    BACKGROUND: Climate change poses a dangerous and immediate threat to the health of populations in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to model different scenarios to assess the health co-benefits that result from mitigation actions. METHODS: In this modelling study, we combined a detailed techno-economic energy systems model (UK TIMES), air pollutant emission inventories, a sophisticated air pollution model (Community Multi-scale Air Quality), and previously published associations between concentrations and health outcomes. We used four scenarios and focused on the air pollution implications from fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone. The four scenarios were baseline, which assumed no further climate actions beyond those already achieved and did not meet the UK's Climate Change Act (at least an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050 compared with 1990) target; nuclear power, which met the Climate Change Act target with a limited increase in nuclear power; low-greenhouse gas, which met the Climate Change Act target without any policy constraint on nuclear build; and a constant scenario that held 2011 air pollutant concentrations constant until 2050. We predicted the health and economic impacts from air pollution for the scenarios until 2050, and the inequalities in exposure across different socioeconomic groups. FINDINGS: NO2 concentrations declined leading to 4 892 000 life-years saved for the nuclear power scenario and 7 178 000 life-years saved for the low-greenhouse gas scenario from 2011 to 2154. However, the associations that we used might overestimate the effects of NO2 itself. PM2·5 concentrations in Great Britain are predicted to decrease between 42% and 44% by 2050 compared with 2011 in the scenarios that met the Climate Change Act targets, especially those from road traffic and off-road machinery. These reductions in PM2·5 are tempered by a 2035 peak (and subsequent decline) in biomass (wood

    Dehbi H-M, Blangiardo M, Gulliver J, Fecht D, de Hoogh K, Al-Kanaani Z, Tillin T, Hardy R, Chaturvedi N, Hansell ALet al., 2017,

    Air pollution and cardiovascular mortality with over 25 years follow-up: A combined analysis of two British cohorts

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 99, Pages: 275-281, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Dons E, Laeremans M, Orjuela JP, Avila-Palencia I, Carrasco-Turigas G, Cole-Hunter T, Anaya-Boig E, Standaert A, De Boever P, Nawrot T, Gotschi T, de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Panis LIet al., 2017,

    Wearable Sensors for Personal Monitoring and Estimation of Inhaled Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Evaluation of Methods

    , ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 51, Pages: 1859-1867, ISSN: 0013-936X
    Douglas P, Freni-Sterrantino A, Sanchez ML, Ashworth DC, Ghosh RE, Fecht D, Font A, Blangiardo M, Gulliver J, Toledano MB, Elliott P, de Hoogh K, Fuller GW, Hansell ALet al., 2017,

    Estimating Particulate Exposure from Modern Municipal Waste Incinerators in Great Britain

    , ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 51, Pages: 7511-7519, ISSN: 0013-936X
    Jerrett M, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Popoola O, Jones R, Cohen RC, Almanza E, de Nazelle A, Mead I, Carrasco-Turigas G, Cole-Hunter T, Triguero-Mas M, Seto E, Nieuwenhuijsen Met al., 2017,

    Validating novel air pollution sensors to improve exposure estimates for epidemiological analyses and citizen science

    , ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 158, Pages: 286-294, ISSN: 0013-9351
    Koudis GS, Hu SJ, Majumdar A, Jones R, Stettler MEJet al., 2017,

    Airport emissions reductions from reduced thrust takeoff operations

    Koudis GS, Hu SJ, North RJ, Majumdar A, Stettler MEJet al., 2017,

    The impact of aircraft takeoff thrust setting on NOX emissions

    , JOURNAL OF AIR TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT, Vol: 65, Pages: 191-197, ISSN: 0969-6997
    Olfert JS, Dickau M, Momenimovahed A, Saffaripour M, Thomson K, Smallwood G, Stettler MEJ, Boies A, Sevcenco Y, Crayford A, Johnson Met al., 2017,

    Effective density and volatility of particles sampled from a helicopter gas turbine engine

    , AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 51, Pages: 704-714, ISSN: 0278-6826
    Smith RB, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Beevers SD, Dajnak D, Blangiardo M, Ghosh RE, Hansell AL, Kelly FJ, Anderson HR, Toledano MBet al., 2017,

    Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study

    , BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 359, ISSN: 1756-1833
    Smyth E, Solomon A, Birrell MA, Smallwood MJ, Winyard PG, Tetley TD, Emerson Met al., 2017,

    Influence of inflammation and nitric oxide upon platelet aggregation following deposition of diesel exhaust particles in the airways.

    , British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol: 174, Pages: 2130-2139, ISSN: 0007-1188

    Background and Purpose: Exposure to nanoparticulate pollution has been implicated in platelet-driven thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction. Inflammation and impairment of NO bioavailability have been proposed as potential causative mechanisms. It is unclear, however, whether airways exposure to combustion-derived nanoparticles such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) can augment platelet aggregation in vivo and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed to investigate the effects of acute lung exposure to DEP and CB on platelet activation and the associated role of inflammation and endothelial-derived NO.Experimental Approach: DEP and CB were intratracheally instilled into wild-type (WT) and eNOS−/− mice and platelet aggregation was assessed in vivo using an established model of radio-labelled platelet thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by measuring inflammatory markers, NO metabolites and light transmission aggregometry.Key Results: Platelet aggregation in vivo was significantly enhanced in WT and eNOS−/− mice following acute airways exposure to DEP but not CB. CB exposure, but not DEP, was associated with significant increases in pulmonary neutrophils and IL-6 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma of WT mice. Neither DEP nor CB affected plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration and DEP-induced human platelet aggregation was inhibited by an NO donor.Conclusions and Implications: Pulmonary exposure to DEP and subsequent platelet activation may contribute to the reports of increased cardiovascular risk, associated with exposure to airborne pollution, independent of its effects on inflammation or NO bioavailability.

    de Nazelle A, Bode O, Orjuela JP, 2017,

    Comparison of air pollution exposures in active vs. passive travel modes in European cities: A quantitative review

    , Environment International, Vol: 99, Pages: 151-160, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Bishop JDK, Stettler MEJ, Molden N, Boies AMet al., 2016,

    Engine maps of fuel use and emissions from transient driving cycles

    , APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 183, Pages: 202-217, ISSN: 0306-2619
    Dickau M, Olfert J, Stettler MEJ, Boies A, Momenimovahed A, Thomson K, Smallwood G, Johnson Met al., 2016,

    Methodology for quantifying the volatile mixing state of an aerosol

    , AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 759-772, ISSN: 0278-6826
    Fecht D, Hansell AL, Morley D, Dajnak D, Vienneau D, Beevers S, Toledano MB, Kelly FJ, Anderson HR, Gulliver Jet al., 2016,

    Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 88, Pages: 235-242, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Gulliver J, de Hoogh K, Hoek G, Vienneau D, Fecht D, Hansell Aet al., 2016,

    Back-extrapolated and year-specific NO2 land use regression models for Great Britain - Do they yield different exposure assessment?

    , ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 92-93, Pages: 202-209, ISSN: 0160-4120
    Halonen JI, Blangiardo M, Toledano MB, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Anderson HR, Beevers SD, Dajnak D, Kelly FJ, Tonne Cet al., 2016,

    Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

    , ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, Vol: 208, Pages: 48-57, ISSN: 0269-7491
    O'Driscoll R, ApSimon HM, Oxley T, Molden N, Stettler MEJ, Thiyagarajah Aet al., 2016,

    A Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) study of NO<inf>x</inf>and primary NO<inf>2</inf>emissions from Euro 6 diesel passenger cars and comparison with COPERT emission factors

    , Atmospheric Environment, Vol: 145, Pages: 81-91, ISSN: 1352-2310

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Real world emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) often greatly exceed those achieved in the laboratory based type approval process. In this paper the real world emissions from a substantial sample of the latest Euro 6 diesel passenger cars are presented with a focus on NOxand primary NO2. Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) data is analysed from 39 Euro 6 diesel passenger cars over a test route comprised of urban and motorway sections. The sample includes vehicles installed with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean NOxtraps (LNT), or selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The results show wide variability in NOxemissions from 1 to 22 times the type approval limit. The average NOxemission, 0.36 (sd. 0.36) g km−1, is 4.5 times the Euro 6 limit. The average fraction primary NO2(fNO2) is 44 (sd. 20) %. Higher emissions during the urban section of the route are attributed to an increased number of acceleration events. Comparisons between PEMS measurements and COPERT speed dependent emissions factors show PEMS measurements to be on average 1.6 times higher than COPERT estimates for NOxand 2.5 times for NO2. However, by removing the 5 most polluting vehicles average emissions were reduced considerably.

    Stettler MEJ, Midgley WJB, Swanson JJ, Cebon D, Boies AMet al., 2016,

    Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles

    , ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 2018-2026, ISSN: 0013-936X
    Worth DJ, Stettler MEJ, Dickinson P, Hegarty K, Boies AMet al., 2016,

    Characterization and Evaluation of Methane Oxidation Catalysts for Dual-Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Engines

    , Emission Control Science and Technology, Vol: 2, Pages: 204-214, ISSN: 2199-3629

    © 2016, The Author(s). The UK has incentivized the use of natural gas in heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) by converting to dual-fuel (DF) diesel-natural gas systems to reduce noxious and greenhouse gas emissions. Laboratory and on-road measurements of DF vehicles have demonstrated a decrease in CO2emissions relative to diesel, but there is an increase in greenhouse gas (CO2e) emissions because of unburned methane. Decreasing tailpipe emissions of methane via after-treatment devices in lean-burn compression ignition engines is a challenge because of low exhaust temperatures (∼400 °C) and the presence of water vapor. In this study, six commercially available methane oxidation catalysts (MOCs) were tested for their application in DF HGV vehicles. Each MOC was characterized in terms of the catalyst platinum group metal (PGM) loading (both Pd and Pt), particle size, catalytic surface area, and Pd:Pt ratio. In addition, the washcoat surface area, pore volume, and pore size were evaluated. The MOC conversion efficiency was evaluated in controlled methane-oxidation experiments with varying temperatures, flow rates, and gas compositions. Characteristic-conversion efficiency correlations demonstrate that the influential MOC characteristics were PGM loading (both Pd and Pt), Pd:Pt ratio, washcoat surface area, and washcoat pore volume. With 90 % methane oxidation at less than 400 °C in DF HGV exhaust conditions, sample 1 had the highest conversion efficiency because of a high PGM loading (330 g/ft3, 12,000 g/m3), a 5.9 Pd:Pt ratio, a high alumina washcoat surface area of 20 m2/cm3, and 74-mm3/cm3pore volume. Additional studies showed increased MOC conversion efficiency with decreasing gas hourly space velocities (GHSVs) and increasing methane concentrations.

    Halonen JI, Blangiardo M, Toledano MB, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Ghosh R, Anderson HR, Beevers SD, Dajnak D, Kelly FJ, Wilkinson P, Tonne Cet al., 2015,

    Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with mortality? A small-area study in London.

    , Environmental Pollution, ISSN: 1873-6424

    Long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants may be harmful for health but few studies have investigated effects on mortality. We examined associations for six primary traffic pollutants with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 2003-2010 at small-area level using linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models. In linear models most pollutants showed negative or null association with all-cause, cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. In the piecewise models we observed positive associations in the lowest exposure range (e.g. relative risk (RR) for all-cause mortality 1.07 (95% credible interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15) per 0.15 μg/m(3) increase in exhaust related primary particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)) whereas associations in the highest exposure range were negative (corresponding RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, there was only weak evidence of positive associations with mortality. That we found the strongest positive associations in the lowest exposure group may reflect residual confounding by unmeasured confounders that varies by exposure group.

    Smyth E, Solomon A, Vydyanath A, Luther PK, Pitchford S, Tetley TD, Emerson Met al., 2015,

    Induction and enhancement of platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo by model polystyrene nanoparticles

    , NANOTOXICOLOGY, Vol: 9, Pages: 356-364, ISSN: 1743-5390
    Solomon A, Smyth E, Mitha N, Pitchford S, Vydyanath A, Luther PK, Thorley AJ, Tetley TD, Emerson Met al., 2013,

    Induction of platelet aggregation after a direct physical interaction with diesel exhaust particles

    , JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Vol: 11, Pages: 325-334, ISSN: 1538-7933
    Cai Y, Hansell A, Hodgson S, Elliott P, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Key T, de Hoogh K, Hveem K, Morley D, Vienneau D, Blangiardo Met al.,

    Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: a joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts

    , Environment International, ISSN: 0160-4120

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noiseand air pollutionon incident cardiovascular disease (CVD)in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. Methods: In pooled complete-casesample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom(N=355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5,259ischemic heart disease (IHD)and 2,871cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010)and end of follow-up (2008-2013)through medical recordlinkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise(Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm [PM10],≤2.5 μm [PM2.5]andnitrogen 39dioxide[NO2])exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU)and European-wide Land Use Regression models.Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustmentsforboth noise and air pollution andpotential confounders. Results: No significant associations were found between annual mean Ldenand incidentCVD,IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall populationexcept that the association withincident IHD was significantamong current-smokers.In the fully adjusted models including adjustmentfor Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10(4.1μg/m3) or PM2.5(1.4μg/m3) was associated witha5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-7.4%) higherrisk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2and any of the CVD outcomes. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, w

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