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    Logan NJ, Camman M, Williams G, Higgins CAet al., 2018,

    Demethylation of ITGAV accelerates osteogenic differentiation in a blast-induced heterotopic ossification in vitro cell culture model

    , BONE, Vol: 117, Pages: 149-160, ISSN: 8756-3282
    Campos Pires R, Yonis A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Edge C, Mahoney P, Dickinson Ret al., 2018,

    A novel In vitro model of blast traumatic brain injury

    , Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol: in press, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1940-087X

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in military and civilian populations. Blast traumatic brain injury results from the detonation of explosive devices, however, the mechanisms that underlie the brain damage resulting from blast overpressure exposure are not entirely understood and are believed to be unique to this type of brain injury. Preclinical models are crucial tools that contribute to better understand blast-induced brain injury. A novel in vitro blast TBI model was developed using an open-ended shock tube to simulate real-life open-field blast waves modelled by the Friedlander waveform. C57BL/6N mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were exposed to single shock waves and the development of injury was characterized up to 72 h using propidium iodide, a well-established fluorescent marker of cell damage that only penetrates cells with compromised cellular membranes. Propidium iodide fluorescence was significantly higher in the slices exposed to a blast wave when compared with sham slices throughout the duration of the protocol. The brain tissue injury is very reproducible and proportional to the peak overpressure of the shock wave applied.

    Grigoriadis G, Carpanen D, Webster CE, Ramasamy A, Newell N, Masouros SDet al., 2018,

    Lower Limb Posture Affects the Mechanism of Injury in Under-Body Blast.

    , Ann Biomed Eng

    Over 80% of wounded Service Members sustain at least one extremity injury. The 'deck-slap' foot, a product of the vehicle's floor rising rapidly when attacked by a mine to injure the limb, has been a signature injury in recent conflicts. Given the frequency and severity of these combat-related extremity injuries, they require the greatest utilisation of resources for treatment, and have caused the greatest number of disabled soldiers during recent conflicts. Most research efforts focus on occupants seated with both tibia-to-femur and tibia-to-foot angles set at 90°; it is unknown whether results obtained from these tests are applicable when alternative seated postures are adopted. To investigate this, lower limbs from anthropometric testing devices (ATDs) and post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) were loaded in three different seated postures using an under-body blast injury simulator. Using metrics that are commonly used for assessing injury, such as the axial force and the revised tibia index, the lower limb of ATDs were found to be insensitive to posture variations while the injuries sustained by the PMHS lower limbs differed in type and severity between postures. This suggests that the mechanism of injury depends on the posture and that this cannot be captured by the current injury criteria. Therefore, great care should be taken when interpreting and extrapolating results, especially in vehicle qualification tests, when postures other than the 90°-90° are of interest.

    Rosenberg NM, Bull AMJ, 2018,

    Application of a mechanobiological algorithm to investigate mechanical mediation of heterotopic bone in trans-femoral amputees.

    , Sci Rep, Vol: 8

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process of bone formation in tissues that are not usually osseous. It occurs in 60% of those with blast-related amputations. HO can result in reduced range of motion, pain, nerve impingement and can affect prosthesis fitting and is caused by a combination of mechanical, biological, local and systemic factors. As with normal bone formation and remodelling, it is expected that heterotopic bone responds to mechanical stimuli and understanding this relationship can give insight into the pathology. The objective of this research was to investigate whether a physiological 2D computational model that considers both mechanical and biological factors can be used to simulate HO in the residual limb of a trans-femoral amputee. The study found that characteristic morphologies of HO were reproduced by adjusting the loading environment. Significant effects were produced by changing the loading direction on the femur; this is potentially associated with different initial surgical interventions such as muscle myodesis. Also, initial treatment such as negative pressure through a dressing was found to change the shape of heterotopic bone.

    Zaharie DT, Phillips ATM, 2018,

    Pelvic Construct Prediction of Trabecular and Cortical Bone Structural Architecture

    Webster CE, Clasper J, Stinner DJ, Eliahoo J, Masouros SDet al., 2018,

    Characterization of Lower Extremity Blast Injury

    , MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol: 183, Pages: E448-E453, ISSN: 0026-4075
    Campos-Pires R, Armstrong S, Sebastiani A, Luh C, Gruss M, Radyushkin K, Hirnet T, Werner C, Engelhard K, Franks NP, Thal SC, Dickinson Ret al., 2018,

    Xenon treatment improves short-term and long-term outcomes in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury

    , British Journal of Anaesthesia Research Forum, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: e21-e21, ISSN: 0007-0912
    Campos-Pires R, Yonis A, Pau A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Edge CJ, Franks NP, Mahoney PF, Dickinson Ret al., 2018,

    Xenon is neuroprotective against blast traumatic brain injury in vitro

    , British Journal of Anaesthesia Research Forum, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: e23-e23, ISSN: 0007-0912
    Newell N, Pearce AP, Spurrier E, Gibb I, Webster CE, Clasper JC, Masouros SDet al., 2018,

    Analysis of isolated transverse process fractures sustained during blast-related events.

    , J Trauma Acute Care Surg, Vol: 85, Pages: S129-S133

    BACKGROUND: Personnel have sustained a range of devastating blast injuries during recent conflicts. Previous studies have focused on severe injuries, including to the spine; however, no study has specifically focused on the most common spinal injury-transverse process (TP) fractures. Although their treatment usually requires limited intervention, analysis of TP fractures may help determine injury mechanisms. METHODS: Data were collected from victims with spinal fractures who were injured in improvised explosive device attacks, from the UK's Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. The level and side of each TP fracture were recorded, as well as associated injuries, whether they were mounted or dismounted, and outcome (survivor or fatality). RESULTS: Most (80%) of the TP fractures were lumbar. More bilateral (both left and right fractures at the same level), and L5 TP fractures, were seen in fatalities than survivors. In the mounted group, lumbar TP fractures were statistically significantly associated with fatality, head injury, noncompressible torso hemorrhage, pelvic injury, and other spinal injuries. In the dismounted group, thoracic TP fractures were associated with head, chest wall, and other spinal injuries; and lumbar TP fractures were associated with pelvic and other spinal injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Different injury mechanisms of the TP in the mounted and dismounted groups are likely. Inertial forces acting within the torso due to rapid loading being transferred through the seat, or high intra-abdominal pressures causing the tensile forces acting through the lumbar fascia to avulse the TPs are likely mechanisms in the mounted group. Blunt trauma, violent lateral flexion-extension forces, or rapid flail of the lower extremities causing tension of the psoas muscle, avulsing the TP, are likely causes in the dismounted group. Isolated lumbar TP fractures can be used as markers for more severe injuries, and fatality, in mounted blast casualties. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic

    Campos-Pires R, Koziakova M, Yonis A, Pau A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Edge CJ, Franks NP, Mahoney PF, Dickinson Ret al., 2018,

    Xenon Protects against Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in an In Vitro Model

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA, Vol: 35, Pages: 1037-1044, ISSN: 0897-7151
    Saiz Alia M, Askari A, Forte AE, Reichenbach JDTet al., 2018,

    A model of the human auditory brainstem response to running speech

    , ARO 2018
    Forte AE, Etard OE, Reichenbach JDT, 2018,

    Selective Auditory Attention At The Brainstem Level

    , ARO 2018
    Kegler M, Etard OE, Forte AE, Reichenbach JDTet al., 2018,

    Complex Statistical Model for Detecting the Auditory Brainstem Response to Natural Speech and for Decoding Attention from High-Density EEG Recordings

    , ARO 2018
    Karunaratne A, Li S, Bull AMJ, 2018,

    Nano-scale mechanisms explain the stiffening and strengthening of ligament tissue with increasing strain rate.

    , Sci Rep, Vol: 8

    Ligament failure is a major societal burden causing disability and pain. Failure is caused by trauma at high loading rates. At the macroscopic level increasing strain rates cause an increase in failure stress and modulus, but the mechanism for this strain rate dependency is not known. Here we investigate the nano scale mechanical property changes of human ligament using mechanical testing combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. With increasing strain rate, we observe a significant increase in fibril modulus and a reduction of fibril to tissue strain ratio, revealing that tissue-level stiffening is mainly due to the stiffening of collagen fibrils. Further, we show that the reduction in fibril deformation at higher strain rates is due to reduced molecular strain and fibrillar gaps, and is associated with rapid disruption of matrix-fibril bonding. This reduction in number of interfibrillar cross-links explains the changes in fibril strain; this is verified through computational modelling.

    Etard OE, Kegler M, Braiman C, Forte AE, Reichenbach JDTet al., 2018,

    Real-time decoding of selective attention from the human auditory brainstem response to continuous speech

    , BioRxiv
    Rosenberg N, Bull AMJ, 2018,

    Simulating localised cellular inflammation and substrate properties in a strain energy density based bone remodelling algorithm for use in modelling trauma.

    , Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, Vol: 21, Pages: 208-218

    Bone responds to mechanical stimulus and a range of pre-existing finite element models have been suggested to reproduce the internal physiological structure of bone. Inflammation effects are not included in these models, yet inflammation is a key component of bone repair in trauma. Therefore, a model is proposed and tested here that extends these methods to include parameters that could be considered to represent the behaviour of bone remodelling when influenced by inflammation. The proposed model regulates remodelling based on findings from recent studies into the nature of heterotopic ossification, the formation of heterotopic bone, which have revealed information about the nature of bone after high levels of trauma. These parameters include consideration of the distance from the zone of trauma, the density of mesenchymal stem cells, and substrate stiffness as a trigger for cells becoming osteogenic. The method is tested on a two-dimensional plate model and shows that the new extended algorithm can produce a range of structures depending on inputs that could be used in the future to replicate physiological scenarios.

    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, 2017,

    Microscale poroelastic metamodel for efficient mesoscale bone remodelling simulations

    , BIOMECHANICS AND MODELING IN MECHANOBIOLOGY, Vol: 16, Pages: 2077-2091, ISSN: 1617-7959
    Forte AE, Etard O, Reichenbach T, 2017,

    The human auditory brainstem response to running speech reveals a subcortical mechanism for selective attention

    , ELIFE, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2050-084X
    Kegler M, Etard O, Forte AE, Reichenbach Jet al., 2017,

    Complex statistical model for detecting the auditory brainstem response to natural speech and for decoding attention

    , Basic Auditory Science 2017
    Forte AE, Etard O, Reichenbach J, 2017,

    Selective auditory attention modulates the human brainstem's response to running speech

    , Basic Auditory Science 2017

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